Most Downloaded Articles

   
 
HEALTH MANPOWER AND MANAGEMENT
Rajoo S Chhina, Rajdeep S Chhina, Ananat Sidhu, Amit Bansal

Health Manpower Planning

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:53-57][No of Hits : 1799]


Abstract

Manpower is the most crucial resource toward delivery of health planning. Health manpower refers to people who are trained to promote health, to prevent and to cure diseases, and to rehabilitate the sick. The aim of manpower planning is to make available the right kind of personnel in the right number with appropriate skills at the right place at the right time doing the right job. Various types of health resources are doctors, nurses, pharmacists, lab technicians, radiographer health assistants, health workers, auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM), accredited social health activists (ASHAs), anganwadi workers, trained dais, and so on. Currently, developing countries including India lag behind suggested norms of required health manpower. Presently, India produces 30,000 doctors, 18,000 specialists, 30,000 Ayurveda, Yoga and naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) graduates, 54,000 nurses, 15,000 ANMs, and 36,000 pharmacists annually. This production is not equal across the states, leading to unequal distribution of doctors. Such a skewed distribution results in large gaps in demand and availability. Various reasons for this are skewed production of health manpower, uneven human resource deployment and distribution, disconnected education and training, lack of job satisfaction, professional isolation, and lack of rural experience. The 12th Plan should aim to expand facilities for medical, nursing, and paramedical education; create new skilled health worker categories; enable AYUSH graduates to provide essential health care by upgrading their skills in modern medicine through bridge courses; establish a management system for human resource in health to actualize improved methods for recruitment, retention, and performance; put in place incentive-based structures; create career tracks for professional advancement based on competence; and, finally, build an independent and professional regulatory environment.

Keywords: Health, Manpower, Planning.

How to cite this article: Chhina RS, Chhina RS, Sidhu A, Bansal A. Health Manpower Planning. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):53-57.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Geeta Sharma, Rahat Kumar, Jaswinder Singh, Vikram Bhandari, Narinder Singh

Pharmacovigilance in India and its Impact in Patient Management

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:27-33][No of Hits : 1693]


Abstract

Pharmacovigilance is the pharmacological science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects, particularly the long-term and short-term adverse effects of drugs or treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) established pharmacovigilance Programme for International Drug Monitoring in response to the thalidomide disaster detected in 1961. India joined the WHO adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring program based in Uppsala, Sweden, in 1998. The Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), Directorate General of Health Services, under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, in collaboration with Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ghaziabad, is a National Coordinating Centre (NCC). Adverse drug reaction monitoring centers (AMCs) under the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI) play a vital role in the collection and follow-up of ADR reports from the patients, as drug trials in animals and humans (Phase I–III) do not predict accurately the adverse drug events. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)/liver disease are at risk of enhanced drug-related events. These patients should be closely monitored for any adverse events and it should be reported. Thus, inculcating the habit of ADR reporting will help in generating data specific to Indian population and will contribute toward patient safety. This will also help in modifying the treatment given to the patients, as early identification of ADRs will help in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients.

Keywords: Adverse drug reactions, Pharmacovigilance, Postmarketing.

How to cite this article: Sharma G, Kumar R, Singh J, Bhandari V, Singh N. Pharmacovigilance in India and its Impact in Patient Management. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):27-33.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Ramandeep S Narang, Anterpreet Arora

Oral Submucous Fibrosis: An Overview

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:22-26][No of Hits : 937]


Abstract

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic and potentially malignant condition of the oral cavity. It occurs predominantly in India and Southeast Asia. The pathogenesis of OSMF is not well established, but it is believed to be multifactorial. Chewing of betel quid (containing areca nut, tobacco, and slaked lime) has been recognized as one of the most important risk factors. It is characterized by a juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibroelastic changes in the lamina propria and associated epithelial atrophy. The disease affects most parts of the oral cavity as well as the upper third of the esophagus. The abnormal fibrosis causes blanching and stiffness of the mouth, with eventual immobility of the lips, cheeks, tongue, soft palate, and uvula. Treatment of OSMF is difficult; a combination drug treatment is administered. In patients with severe disease, physical therapy and/or surgery is added to drug therapy.

Keywords: Areca nut, Malignant potential, Oral submucous fibrosis, Precancerous.

How to cite this article: Narang RS, Arora A. Oral Submucous Fibrosis: An Overview. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):22-26.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
MEDICAL ETHICS, LAW AND SOCIETY
Simranpreet Kaur

Surrogacy: The Need, Usage, Misuse, and the much Needed Rectification Step – The Proposed Surrogacy Bill 2016

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:46-49][No of Hits : 777]


Abstract

How to cite this article: Kaur S. Surrogacy: The Need, Usage, Misuse, and the much Needed Rectification Step – The Proposed Surrogacy Bill 2016. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):46-49.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Rupinder Kaur

Knowledge about Safety Measures regarding Handling of Chemotherapeutic Agents among Staff Nurses in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:76-79][No of Hits : 658]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chemotherapy is the use of cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of cancer that provides cure, control, and palliation. The study was conducted with the aim of assessing knowledge about safety measures regarding handling of chemotherapeutic agents among staff nurses.

Materials and methods: A descriptive research approach was used with one point of data collection. Through convenience sampling with random assignment, 40 study subjects were selected. Structured knowledge questionnaires were prepared and validated.

Results: This revealed that 60% of the staff nurses had adequate knowledge and 40% had inadequate knowledge regarding handling of chemotherapeutic agents. The chisquared test value was found to be statistically significant at p-value <0.05 regarding knowledge of chemotherapeutic agents with educational status and work experience.

Conclusion: Health talks, in-service education, and seminar and workshop programs should be conducted and staff nurses should be certified to handle the chemotherapeutic agents.

Keywords: Chemotherapeutic agents, Safety measures, Staff nurses, Structured knowledge questionnaires.

How to cite this article: Kaur R. Knowledge about Safety Measures regarding Handling of Chemotherapeutic Agents among Staff Nurses in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):76-79.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Roopam Bassi, Saurabh Sharma, Kiran Mehta, Manjeet Kaur, Deepinder Kaur

Study of Serum Superoxide Dismutase and Malondialdehyde Levels during Normal Pregnancy

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:1-5][No of Hits : 619]


Abstract

Introduction: Pregnancy is accompanied by a high-energy demand of all body functions and an increased oxygen requirement, which can give rise to increased levels of oxidative stress.

Aims and objectives: The present study was done to assess the levels of oxidative stress in healthy pregnant females by estimating serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and comparing these with nonpregnant females.

Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 88 female subjects in the age group of 20 to 40 years, who were placed in two groups. Group I consisted of 50 healthy nonpregnant females. Group II consisted of healthy pregnant females further subdivided into three subgroups: Group IIa (1st trimester) n = 38, group IIb (2nd trimester) n = 32, and group IIc (3rd trimester) n = 30. The same subjects were followed up till the 3rd trimester. There was a drop in the number of subjects from 38 to 32 in the 2nd trimester and from 32 to 30 in the 3rd trimester due to noncompliance and development of complications of pregnancy. The subjects were assessed for hemoglobin (Hb), MDA, a marker for lipid peroxidation, and SOD, an antioxidant enzyme along with certain physiological parameters like height, weight, body mass index, and blood pressure in the three trimesters.

Results: The levels of SOD and MDA were significantly raised with the progression of pregnancy. There was a fall in Hb levels in the 3rd trimester. But no significant correlation could be drawn between the measured parameters in all the trimesters.

Conclusion: Pregnancy is definitely associated with oxidative stress to the body. Both peroxidation and antioxidation reactions are enhanced during pregnancy. With these findings, we therefore conclude that antioxidant supplements should be prescribed in early pregnancy to prevent the overwhelming of oxidative stress in pregnant females.

Keywords: Malondialdehyde, Pregnant females, Superoxide dismutase.

How to cite this article: Bassi R, Sharma S, Mehta K, Kaur M, Kaur D. Study of Serum Superoxide Dismutase and Malondialdehyde Levels during Normal Pregnancy. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):1-5.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
MEDICAL ETHICS, LAW AND SOCIETY
Navpreet Kaur

Informed Consent: A Legal Formality or a Mandate

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:50-52][No of Hits : 578]


Abstract

Doctor patient relationship which in olden days was a highly revered one has undergone considerable change due to the greater awareness among patients regarding their rights and easy access to litigation process. The profession which was considered the most humble one has transformed into a service and falls under the purview of Consumer Protection act. Informed consent is a concept which gives the person right to pick and choose from the different types of treatment modalities, right to voluntarily suffer any harm which may occur during treatment thereby also decreasing the burden of responsibility which falls upon the doctor’s shoulders to pick the best treatment modality for his patient and to bear the brunt of patient and his relatives if something goes wrong. Thus informed consent is not just a legal formality but a mandate which guarantees not only the best treatment for the patient as per his choice but also safeguards a doctor against unnecessary litigations.

Keywords: Consent, Doctor-Patient relationship, Right to choose, Litigation

How to cite this article: Kaur N. Informed Consent: A Legal Formality or a Mandate. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):50-52.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Kiran, Richa G Thaman, Roopam Bassi, Kawalinder Girgla

Comparison of Autonomic Function using Valsalva Ratio, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure in Meditators and Nonmeditators

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:6-9][No of Hits : 562]


Abstract

Introduction: In recent years, the various health benefits of meditation have been acknowledged by the scientific community as well as by the public. Apart from its physiological benefits, it can also improve the psychological and spiritual well-being. A case–control study was planned to investigate the effect of Rajyoga Meditation on cardiovascular autonomic activity in meditators and nonmeditators.

Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 100 subjects, randomized into two groups: meditators (n=50; age 35.80±7.69 years) and nonmeditators (n=50; age 36.76± 6.38 years). The meditator group practiced meditation for 30 minutes in the morning as well as in the evening. The control group did not practice any type of meditation or relaxation techniques. The cardiovascular parameters – heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and Valsalva maneuver tests – were performed in both the groups in the same environmental conditions. The data were compiled and analyzed using unpaired t test.

Results: The mean values of HR in meditators and the control group were 77.08±5.39 and 80.68±5.71 respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The mean values of SBP in meditators and nonmeditators were 124.60±5.39 and 129.56±4.30 mmHg respectively, while those for DBP were 77.84±4.65 and 80.80±4.78 mmHg respectively. The difference in both was statistically significant. In meditators, Valsalva ratio was 1.60±0.20, while in nonmeditators, it was 1.33±0.13, and the difference was highly significant.

Conclusion: Significant improvement is seen in physiological, cardiac, and parasympathetic parameters in Rajyoga meditators. A shift of the autonomic balance toward the parasympathetic side is seen. By purposefully energizing the parasympathetic system by meditation, we can combat the ill effects of stress and help heal many health conditions.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, Rajyoga meditation, Valsalva ratio.

How to cite this article: Kiran, Thaman RG, Bassi R, Girgla K. Comparison of Autonomic Function using Valsalva Ratio, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure in Meditators and Nonmeditators. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):6-9.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Monika Lalit, Sanjay Piplani, Anupama Mahajan, JS Kullar

Occipitalization of Atlas: A Case Report with its Ontogenic Basis and Review of Literature

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:34-37][No of Hits : 540]


Abstract

Introduction: Anatomy of the cervical vertebrae allows free flexion, extension, and rotation, which take place almost entirely in the first two cervical vertebrae. Variation in the articulation of upper cervical spine-like congenital fusion of the atlas to the base of the occiput, i.e., occipitalization of the atlas, is one of the common skeletal abnormalities. Such variations will produce irregular motion and at times a definite instability of the joint involved.

Conclusion: Considering the nature and functional importance of the joints in relation to these bones, the resulting disability is one of the rare occurrences and deserves special attention. Such patients exhibit neurological signs and symptoms usually no sooner than the second decade. Thus, anatomy, variations, and anomalies of the craniocervical junction are of high clinical importance to many specialties like anatomists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, and manipulative therapists, as they markedly influence mobility and stability of the cervical region.

Keywords: Atlas, Cervical region, Craniovertebral joint, Occipitalization.

How to cite this article: Lalit M, Piplani S, Mahajan A, Kullar JS. Occipitalization of Atlas: A Case Report with its Ontogenic Basis and Review of Literature. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):34-37.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Rajbir Kaur, Parvesh Saini

A Quasi-experimental Study on Effectiveness of Cabbage Leaves Application for Breast Engorgement in Postnatal Mothers at Selected Hospitals, Amritsar, Punjab, India

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:72-75][No of Hits : 504]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Breast engorgement occurs in 72 to 85% of postnatal mothers. One home remedy, i.e., cabbage leaves application, is very effective for engorgement. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of cabbage leaves application on breast engorgement among postnatal mothers.

Materials and methods: The study was conducted in tertiary care medical institute and one private hospital in Amritsar. Totally, 63 (33 in study and 30 in control group) postnatal mothers with engorgement of breast were selected by purposive sampling technique and quasi-experimental design was adopted. Storr breast engorgement scale was used to assess the breast engorgement. The chilled cabbage leaves were applied on engorged breast twice a day for 3 subsequent days. The obtained data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics like frequency, percentage mean, standard deviation, unpaired t-test, and Chi-squared test.

Results: The study result showed that there was reduction in breast engorgement level after the intervention and also showed statistically highly significant difference in between the groups.

Conclusion:There was a significant reduction in severity of breast engorgement among postnatal mothers after application of chilled cabbage leaves. Thus, it was proved to be an effective intervention for severity of breast engorgement. Therefore, this intervention should be promoted as an institutional policy and implemented as a routine care for all postnatal mothers having breast engorgement for reducing severity of breast engorgement.

Keywords: Breast engorgement, Cabbage leaves application, Home remedy, Postnatal mothers.

How to cite this article: Kaur R, Saini P. A Quasi-experimental Study on Effectiveness of Cabbage Leaves Application for Breast Engorgement in Postnatal Mothers at Selected Hospitals, Amritsar, Punjab, India. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):72-75.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Seema Sehmi

Prominent Accessory Hemiazygos Vein representing Persistence of Cranial Portion of Posterior Cardinal Vein: Embryological Variant

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:40-41][No of Hits : 450]


Abstract

Introduction: The azygos venous system has developed from the postcardinal veins of the embryo, and small parts persist only at the commencement of the azygos vein. Complex embryological development of these veins is a major cause for many possible variations of the azygos system.

Materials and methods: The present study was done in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Amritsar, on a male cadaver aged about 50 years. The thoracic cavity was opened to dissect the azygos system of veins.

Results: The system showed the persistent cranial part of the posterior cardinal vein. This led to the formation of a well-developed venous channel on the left side of the aortic arch and the thoracic aorta. This channel drained the 2nd to 10th left posterior intercostal veins and drained itself into the left brachiocephalic vein (LBV) after crossing the arch of aorta vertically on its right. There was no transvertebral communication between this channel and azygos vein on the right side. The hemiazygos vein (HAV) on the left side was normally formed and immediately drained into the azygos vein by turning to the left. The azygos vein on the right side was also normal.

Conclusion: The presence of such persistent embryological remnant, its position, and approximation to the structures near the arch of aorta should be taken into account to avoid radiological misdiagnosis and surgical complications.

Keywords: Azygos, Cardinal, Embryological, Hemiazygos.

How to cite this article: Sehmi S. Prominent Accessory Hemiazygos Vein representing Persistence of Cranial Portion of Posterior Cardinal Vein: Embryological Variant. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):40-41.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Rohit Arora, Sahiba Kukreja, Rahul Mannan, Sakshi Bhushan, Saroj Arora

Evaluating the Renoprotective Activity of 4-Methylthiobutyl Isothiocyanate against 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene generated Radical Stress in Male Wistar Rats

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:10-14][No of Hits : 436]


Abstract

Aim: An increasing environmental pollution has elevated the number of deleterious pollutants present in the atmosphere. Among these, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) have posed serious threat to the health of both animals and plants. Most of these compounds are genotoxic in nature and an elevated exposure of these carcinogens increases the risk of initiation and promotion of cancer. The low efficacy, specific target sites, and large number of side effects of the available drugs have encouraged researchers to look for an alternate drug with high biological potency. The best alternate for this is the use of medicinal plants and especially their phytochemicals, such as glucosinolate hydrolytic products. A large number of glucosinolate hydrolytic products are available in different plant species, but sulforaphane has emerged as the most potent among them. This important compound is interconverted to 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (4-MTBITC) or erucin in the body of an organism. In contrast to sulforaphane, not much work has been done on the biological properties of 4-MTBITC. The current study, therefore, focuses on evaluating the renoprotective activity of 4-MTBITC on DMBA induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats.

Materials and methods: The bioprotective efficacy of erucin was evaluated in male Wistar rats treated with DMBA using the levels of serum creatinine, urea, sodium, and potassium.

Results: The treatment with erucin significantly ameliorated the DMBA induced stress in male Wistar rats.

Conclusion: Erucin or 4-MTBITC has the potential to impart protection to male Wistar rats against genotoxic carcinogen (DMBA) induced stress.

Keywords: 4-Methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate, 7,12-Dimethylbenz (a)anthracene, Glucosinolates, Rats, Renoprotective, Xenobiotic.

How to cite this article: Arora R, Kukreja S, Mannan R, Bhushan S, Arora S. Evaluating the Renoprotective Activity of 4-Methylthiobutyl Isothiocyanate against 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a) anthracene generated Radical Stress in Male Wistar Rats. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):10-14.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
MEDICAL EDUCATION
Punita Sharma, Kanika Sachdeva

Students’ Perceptions to Introduction of Problem-based Learning Modules in Anatomy

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:42-45][No of Hits : 416]


Abstract

Introduction: It is necessary for core knowledge of anatomy to be assimilated by all doctors in order to practice, but if it can improve their understanding of what they do and why they do it, this surely has to be of benefit for both the safety of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as a professional. This intervention aimed to study whether problem-based learning (PBL) as an educational strategy can help in improving the quality of gross anatomy teaching and the attitude of students toward the learning method in India.

Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 students who were assigned to 10 groups (10 students in each group). Each PBL tutorial was conducted over three sessions. Pre- and post-tutorial tests were conducted. Data collection was done by a questionnaire survey to examine the students’ learning attitudes and perceptions toward this platform as a possible learning tool. The obtained data were compared, and the main themes were determined.

Results: We found out the satisfaction of students with this learning method and the students’ interest and ability for improvement after this teaching method. Also, the problems and obstacles the students faced in this learning mode were highlighted.

Conclusion: The study clearly pointed out that PBL benefits a lot of students in the study of gross anatomy despite the existing problems. In future, we should implement PBL combined with the characteristics of traditional anatomy teaching.

Keywords: Facilitator, Problem-based learning, Self-directing learning, Student-centered teaching.

How to cite this article: Sharma P, Sachdeva K. Students’ Perceptions to Introduction of Problem-based Learning Modules in Anatomy. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):42-45.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Gurinder Mohan, Ranjeet Kaur, Trimaan Singh

Cardiac Biomarkers in Acute Coronary Syndrome

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:80-88][No of Hits : 304]


ABSTRACT

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the leading causes of admission to the emergency departments (EDs) worldwide. The diagnosis of ACS involves the evaluation of clinical signs and symptoms, electrocardiographic assessment, and measurement of cardiac circulating biomarkers. In the last 60 years, the use of laboratory markers has changed considerably. Early biomarker assessment has entailed testing for total enzyme activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase (CK) but was highly nonspecific. Soon thereafter, the development of immunoassays, as well as technical advances in automation, allowed the measurements of the CK MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) in mass rather than in activity and myoglobin. Currently, cardiac troponins (CTn) have the highest sensitivity and specificity for myocardial necrosis and represent the biochemical gold standard for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This review provides a chronology of the major events that marked the evolution of cardiac biomarker testing and the development of the relative assays from the first introduction of AST in the 1950s to the last high-sensitivity troponin immunoassays in the 2010s.

Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome, Acute myocardial infarction, Cardiac biomarkers, Cardiac troponin.

How to cite this article: Mohan G, Kaur R, Singh T. Cardiac Biomarkers in Acute Coronary Syndrome. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):80-88.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Ravneet Sandhu, Parminder K Sandhu, Dimple Bajaj, Joginder P Singh

Anthropometric Determinants of Hand Grip Strength in Normal Healthy Punjabis

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:68-71][No of Hits : 285]


ABSTRACT

Aim: To determine whether height, body mass index (BMI), hand length, and hand breadth were predictive of hand grip strength in healthy Punjabi adult males and females.

Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 100 healthy adult males (50) and females (50) in the age group of 50 to 60 years randomly. Their anthropometric characteristics including height, weight, BMI, hand length, and hand breadth were measured using standard techniques. Hand grip strength was measured using Jamar dynamometer. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: The present study generated the normative data for hand grip strength and its association with gender, height, weight, BMI, hand length, and hand breadth in study subjects. The gender difference in grip strength was statistically significant with higher grip strength found in males than females. Also, it was found that grip strength was more in the dominant hand as compared with the nondominant hand. Subjects with longer and broader hands had stronger grip.

Conclusion: The knowledge of determinants of hand grip strength in a normal population is essential as in clinical settings it is used as an indicator of overall physical strength and health. Hand length and hand breadth should be well thought out for hand grip strength measurements in the older age group since these anthropometric measures could affect the results of treatment and control of hand function.

Keywords: Body mass index, Hand breadth, Hand grip strength, Hand length, Jamar dynamometer.

How to cite this article: Sandhu R, Sandhu PK, Bajaj D, Singh JP. Anthropometric Determinants of Hand Grip Strength in Normal Healthy Punjabis. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):68-71.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Ruchi Gupta, Chashamjot Bawa, Saru Singh, Lakshmi Mahajan, Bhanupreet Kaur, Tavleen Kaur

Prospective Placebo-controlled Randomized Trial to compare the Efficacy of Ketamine as an Adjuvant to Epidural Steroids in preventing Repeat Blocks in Chronic Low Back Pain

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:15-21][No of Hits : 280]


Abstract

Introduction: Low back pain behaves as a “silent epidemic,” ranking first among complications related to work. Often there is a large gap between a patient’s desired pain reduction and the minimum percentage of improvement that would make a treatment worthwhile. Consequently, debate continues as to the value of epidural steroid injections, supremacy of one adjuvant over others, various doses, and concentrations in optimizing pain management.

Objective: To compare the efficacy of ketamine vs normal saline as an adjuvant to epidural steroids in chronic low back pain.

Study design: Randomized prospective placebo-controlled study.

Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 60 patients of age group 18 to 70 years having chronic lower backache with or without radiculitis of minimum 3 months duration and having no relief with conventional treatment. The patients selected were randomly allocated into two groups of 30 patients each: Group I (n = 30) given triamcinolone 40 mg, preservative-free ketamine 30 mg (0.6 mL) made up to 6 mL solution with 0.25% bupivacaine and group II (n = 30) given 0.6 mL normal saline instead of ketamine. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measured was number of patients requiring repeat blocks and number of repeat blocks administered in 3 months. Other outcome measures were functional improvement quantified by visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) as well as improvement in psychological status by depression scoring, all taken at 2 weeks interval for 3 months. The periprocedural complications were also noted at the end of the study.

Results: In managing lumbar radicular pain with lumbar epidural steroid injection (LESI), ketamine’s role as an adjuvant proved to be advantageous for long-term relief by its inhibition of dorsal horn “wind up” phenomenon through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism, thus reducing frequency of repeat blocks in group II (ketamine).

Conclusion: Thus to conclude, ketamine’s advantage as a drug that prolongs pain relief from LESI is an avenue for further research and promises a bright future in the field of interventional pain medicine.

Keywords: Central neuropathic pain, Epidural steroids, Interlaminar, Ketamine, Low back pain, Nociceptive pain, Radiculopathy, Spinal pain.

How to cite this article: Gupta R, Bawa C, Singh S, Mahajan L, Kaur B, Kaur T. Prospective Placebo-controlled Randomized Trial to compare the Efficacy of Ketamine as an Adjuvant to Epidural Steroids in preventing Repeat Blocks in Chronic Low Back Pain. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):15-21.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Bansal Darpan, Bhangu Gurpreet, Sachdeva Kamal

Appendicular Mucocele—A Diagnostic Dilemma: Managed Laparoscopically

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:38-39][No of Hits : 255]


Abstract

Appendicular mucocele is obstructive dilatation of the appendicular lumen by mucinous secretions. In most of the cases, it is caused by Mucinous cystadenoma and rarely by Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. This rare disorder has a varied clinical presentation, with more than half of the patients being asymptomatic. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with intermittent abdominal colicky pain and altered bowel habits. In spite of extensive preoperative investigations, no definitive diagnosis was made. On diagnostic laparoscopy it was found to be appendicular mucocele. We electively performed a laparoscopic appendectomy. As there is a risk of malignancy in the mucocele, we used an endobag to retrieve the specimen. Histological examination confirmed it as a Mucinous cystadenoma.

Keywords: Appendix, Laparoscopy, Mucinous cystadenoma, Mucocele.

How to cite this article: Darpan B, Gurpreet B, Kamal S. Appendicular Mucocele—A Diagnostic Dilemma: Managed Laparoscopically. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):38-39.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
HEALTH MANPOWER AND MANAGEMENT
Gaurav Thukral, Vishesh Madaan

Health care Leadership and Management—The Changing Face, Making Difference

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:107-110][No of Hits : 243]


ABSTRACT

Health care organizations are the most intricate and exacting to manage because of the diverse field and dynamic innovative changes and spiraling costs. In this article, we discuss different approaches to leadership in health care and that whatever approaches chosen should endeavor for a strong team identity, inspiring vision, and strong commitment to collaborating teamwork. Framework of process management established in three domains—align, enable, and innovate—is also discussed. Many bodies of research have focused on the competencies related to effective managerial/leadership skills. Guidance for effective leadership should focus on the communication, relationship management, motivational leadership, collaboration, business skills, and knowledge. Effective leaders provide highquality empathetic patient care. They prioritize patient satisfaction by ensuring their voice is heard. We must strive toward collective and consistent leadership by clinicians and other staff at the forefront, rather their designated managers alone.

Keywords: Competencies, Health care organizations, Leadership approaches, Patient satisfaction, Process management.

How to cite this article: Thukral G, Madaan V. Health care Leadership and Management—The Changing Face, Making Difference. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):107-110.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Editorial
Richa Ghay Thaman

Conversation with Medical Literature

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:v][No of Hits : 225]


Abstract

Conversation with Medical Literature

“Let all circumstances, all beginnings in life be occasions, constantly renewed for learning more and even more”
The Mother (Sri Aurobindo Ashram)

The horizons in medical research and education are widening. There is a steady rise in the global interest in research and enhanced awareness of the necessity of pursuing the work. There is therefore a need to provide diligent support for health care professionals to widen the prospects of publication and academic recognization of their work. As the new trends in medical research and education continue to emerge, our intent to bring out a new scientific journal is simply with the purpose to help fellow colleagues to publish their work and recognization of their scholarly achievement.


 
MEDICAL EDUCATION
Sahiba Kukreja, Amandeep Kaur, Manmeet Gill, Namrata Chhabra

Introduction of Case-based Learning as a Teaching/Learning Tool to enhance Students’ Knowledge in Biochemistry

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:96-99][No of Hits : 198]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Case-based learning (CBL) promotes integration of knowledge and practice. During CBL, students are exposed to the real medical problems. The present study was conducted to introduce CBL as a teaching/learning (T/L) tool in the Department of Biochemistry and to determine its effectiveness in enhancing students’ knowledge and also to make the students aware of relevance of biochemistry in clinical settings.

Materials and methods: After permission from Ethical Committee, both faculty and students were sensitized to CBL; questionnaires and feedback pro forma for students and faculty were finalized. Total of 126 students of first-year Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) were included in the study, and they were divided into two groups. Both groups I and II comprised 63 students each. The study group I (n = 63) was given a clinical problem with specific learning objectives 2 days before CBL session. Pretest questionnaire was administered to both the groups. Group I underwent a CBL session and group II had the same teacher teaching the topic in a didactic lecture form. Both the groups were given a posttest. Crossover of groups was done for the second clinical case. Structured feedback questionnaire on acceptability and usefulness of this method was taken from both the students and the faculty. Using Student’s paired and unpaired t-test, the results of pretest and posttest were analyzed.

Results: The majority of students (89%) agreed that CBL form of teaching was better than didactic lectures in understanding the topic. For clinical application of knowledge of biochemistry, 85% of the faculty agreed that CBL was a better T/L tool.

Conclusion: Among medical students, CBL is effective for better understanding of biochemistry. It motivates students to become self-directed learners. Along with didactic lectures it should be a part of teaching curriculum.

Keywords: Biochemistry, Case-based learning, First-year Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery.

How to cite this article: Kukreja S, Kaur A, Gill M, Chhabra N. Introduction of Case-based Learning as a Teaching/Learning Tool to enhance Students’ Knowledge in Biochemistry. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):96-99.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Gurinder Mohan, Ranjeet Kaur, Ankur Kamra, Aakash Aggarwal

A Comparative Study of Electrocardiographic and Echocardiographic Evidence of Left ventricular Hypertrophy

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:59-63][No of Hits : 184]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: The increased risk of morbidity and mortality associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) diagnosed by electrocardiogram (ECG) or echocardiography is well known. The aim of the study was to evaluate ECG and echocardiography evidence of LVH in patients provisionally diagnosed to have LVH on clinical assessment and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of different criteria of LVH on ECG in comparison with echocardiography.

Materials and methods: Hundred patients provisionally diagnosed to have LVH based on clinical assessment were enrolled in this study. A standard 12-lead ECG was recorded. Left ventricular hypertrophy was measured on ECG by applying following criteria: Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell, Romhilt-Estes score. Using two-dimensional echocardiography as the gold standard, LVH was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity of different criteria of ECG were calculated in comparison with echocardiography.

Results: Out of 100 patients suspected to have LVH, 91 patients were found to have LVH on echocardiography. Indicating that echocardiography has sensitivity of 91% and diagnostic accuracy of 91%. On comparing different criteria, Sokolow criterion was found to have maximum sensitivity of 38.46%, while Cornell criterion was least sensitive, i.e., 14.29%, and sensitivity of Romhilt-Estes criterion was 19.78%. However, overall sensitivity of ECG can be increased by combining all the criteria, i.e., to 45.05%. Specificity of different criteria of ECG was high, i.e., as much as 100% in case of Romhilt-Estes criterion, while overall specificity of ECG was 77.778%.

Conclusion: Sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of ECG were very low in comparison with echocardiography in detecting LVH; therefore, ECG cannot replace echocardiography in detecting LVH. Overall sensitivity of different criteria of ECG was low. However, sensitivity of ECG can be increased by combining Sokolow-Lyons voltage criteria and Cornell voltage criteria with Romhilt-Estes point score.

Keywords: Cornell, Echocardiography, Electrocardiogram, Romhilt-Estes score, Sokolow-Lyon.

How to cite this article: Mohan G, Kaur R, Kamra A, Aggarwal A. A Comparative Study of Electrocardiographic and Echocardiographic Evidence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):59-63.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
MEDICAL ETHICS, LAW AND SOCIETY
Simranpreet Kaur, Madhu Nagpal

Recent Advancement in Human Reproduction Three-parent Babies: A Technique to Neutralize Mitochondrial Disease Load—A Boon or a Bane for Society?

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:100-103][No of Hits : 178]


ABSTRACT

Three-parent baby technique is the latest tool in preventive methods for mitochondrial diseases. It uses the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replacement therapy (MRT) to get rid of defective mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The MRT has been made possible by pronuclear transfer and maternal spindle transfer (MST). This shall take away the need of surrogacy and adoption, if practiced with certainty. The MRT replaces defective mtDNA, but its close functioning with the individual’s nuclear DNA (nDNA) makes the whole process complicated. This article provides a summarized understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in MRT and the need to consider three-parent in vitro fertilization (IVF). It also discusses the bioethical issues of the technique considering its future implications and whether it is a boon or a bane for our society and subsequent generations.

Keywords: Bioethical issues, Germline genetic modification, Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid, Mitochondrial replacement therapy, Three-parent in vitro fertilization.

How to cite this article: Kaur S, Nagpal M. Recent Advancement in Human Reproduction Three-parent Babies: A Technique to Neutralize Mitochondrial Disease Load—A Boon or a Bane for Society? Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):100-103.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Manmeet K Gill, Sarabjeet Sharma

Aeromonas hydrophila complicating Postpituitary Surgery for Microadenoma

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:91-93][No of Hits : 178]


ABSTRACT

We present a rare case of meningitis caused by Aeromonas hydrophila that complicated an otherwise successful endoscopic removal of pituitary microadenoma. Review of literature revealed very few cases of meningitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In this case, the patient died within 48 hours of admission despite prompt treatment and extensive resuscitation. This highlights the morbidity and mortality potential of a seemingly harmless organism.

Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, Gram negative bacilli, Meningitis.

How to cite this article: Gill MK, Sharma S. Aeromonas hydrophila complicating Postpituitary Surgery for Microadenoma. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):91-93.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Jasleen Kaur, Karuna Thapar, Simplepreet Kaur, Riya K Kalra

Angioma Serpiginosum in Bilateral Distribution in a Male Child: A Rare Entity with Unusual Presentation

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:94-95][No of Hits : 156]


ABSTRACT

Angioma serpiginosum is a rare benign vascular condition which is characterized by the presence of multiple, minute, erythematous angiomatous macules or patches present in linear blaschkoid, gyrate, or serpiginous patterns. It usually affects lower extremities and buttocks. Involvement of upper trunk and extremities is rare. Histologically, there is dilatation of blood vessels in papillary dermis. Dermoscopic findings reveal presence of oval-to-round red lagoons. It shows female preponderance. Hence, we report a rare case of angioma serpiginosum in a male child with bilateral distribution.

Keywords: Angioma serpiginosum, Bilateral distribution, Dermoscopy.

How to cite this article: Kaur J, Thapar K, Kaur S, Kalra RK. Angioma Serpiginosum in Bilateral Distribution in a Male Child: A Rare Entity with Unusual Presentation. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):94-95.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Editorial
Richa Ghay Thaman

Synchronize Your Biological Rhythm

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:v-vii][No of Hits : 154]


ABSTRACT

We all have an internal biological clock that coordinates our circadian rhythm. It operates on a roughly 24 hrs cycle and is calibrated by the appearance and disappearance of natural light. Sunlight teaches the master clock in the brain to keep on track. The rotation of our planet around its central axis creates daily rhythm in environment factors, light intensity, temperature and availability of food.


 
LETTER TO EDITOR
Seema Dayal

Breast Abnormalities and Diseases in Adolescents

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:111-112][No of Hits : 144]


ABSTRACT

Clinical examination, ultrasonography, and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) are the diagnostic modalities to diagnose breast lesions in adolescents. But histopathological examination of lumpectomy or biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis and also the way to management. Inflammatory conditions can be easily managed on medical treatment but awareness and more emphasis should be on the potentially malignant diseases, malignancy, and metastatic breast diseases.

Keywords: Adolescent, Breast, Pathology.

How to cite this article: Dayal S. Breast Abnormalities and Diseases in Adolescents. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017; 1(2):111-112.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Seema Sehmi, Maninder S Sehmi

Bilateral Superior Radioulnar Synostosis: A Rare Congenital Anomaly

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:89-90][No of Hits : 142]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Congenital radioulnar synostosis is a rare anomaly of the upper limb with functional limitations of the limb. However, it occurs more commonly than perceived and is often a part of syndromes, such as Crouzon, Apert’s, and Poland’s. The exact etiology is not clear, but there is genetic basis for the failure of differentiation between the radius and ulna.

Case report: A 6-year-old child with pain and limited mobility of the elbow joint came to the outpatient department, Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College Amritsar, Punjab, India. Plain X-ray anteroposterior and lateral views were taken that showed bilateral superior radioulnar synostosis.

Conclusion: Diagnostic imaging like radiological studies can help the surgeons to plan for surgery of radioulnar synostosis.

Keywords: Crouzon, Elbow, Poland, Radioulnar.

How to cite this article: Sehmi S, Sehmi MS. Bilateral Superior Radioulnar Synostosis: A Rare Congenital Anomaly. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):89-90.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Darpan Bansal, Gurpreet S Bhangu, Ashish P Singh, Harpreet Singh, Noopur Bansal, Ritansh Bansal

An Insight into the Etiopathogenesis of Urinary Retention in Patients managed at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Amritsar, Punjab, India

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:64-67][No of Hits : 137]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Urinary retention is defined as the inability to urinate voluntarily. Acute urinary retention (AUR) is the sudden and painful inability to void, despite having a full bladder. Chronic urinary retention (CUR) is painless retention associated with an increased volume of residual urine. Despite the worldwide interest in the subject, there exist only a limited amount of data with respect to the causes of AUR and CUR. The main aim of study was to study the main aspects of causes and frequency of different causes of urinary retention with their age and incidence in this part of India.

Materials and methods: In this study, 100 patients presenting to the outpatient department (OPD) and emergency of a tertiary care hospital in Amritsar with urinary retention were evaluated and categorized into two groups: AUR and CUR. Further, these patients were subdivided into etiological classification according to the study.

Results: In men, benign prostatic enlargement is the leading cause of urinary retention, with second being stricture urethra. In women, urinary retention was mainly caused by meatal stenosis and blood clots due to urinary bladder growth. We also found some correlation of urinary retention with health negligence and less personal hygiene, which was more common in below-poverty-line patients.

Keywords: Acute retention, Chronic retention, Urinary retention.

How to cite this article: Bansal D, Bhangu GS, Singh AP, Singh H, Bansal N, Bansal R. An Insight into the Etiopathogenesis of Urinary Retention in Patients managed at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Amritsar, Punjab, India. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):64-67

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
MEDICAL ETHICS, LAW AND SOCIETY
Shyam S Deepti

Women’s Reproductive Rights and Population Explosion

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:104-106][No of Hits : 129]


ABSTRACT

The notion of population was discussed scientifically in 1994 at Cario during the international conference of Population and development where it was highlighted that not just poverty but lack of development is population explosion. During subsequent years the focus shifted to women’s reproductive rights. Apart from physiological phenomenon, it was recognized that reproduction is also a social issue especially in developing world where around 40% pregnancies are unwanted. Hence we need to look at women empowerment from a broader perspective, from their right to education to have the freedom to choose work for being economically independent.
Reproductive right it its true sense is to have the control on their bodies which eventually translated into reproductive health.
To conclude action at various levels is required to address this issue.

Keywords: Empowerment, Fertility, Population, Women rights.

How to cite this article: Deepti SS. Women’s Reproductive Rights and Population Explosion. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(2):104-106.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None



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